Why Do I Feel Hungry After Eating? 13 Evidence-Based Reasons for Persistent Hunger Pangs

13 reasons why you still feel hungry after eating & what to do about it

Feeling hungry after eating is a paradox that most of us have encountered at some point. Such an experience can be confusing, sometimes inducing anxiety or concerns about weight gain, especially if it motivates further eating. Yet, it’s a common occurrence and should be approached with understanding rather than apprehension.

Understanding why we might still feel hungry after a meal requires an exploration of both clinical research — which often presents unconventional perspectives on dieting — and the psychological aspects of hunger. This exploration brings us to the intersection of physical hunger and emotional hunger, two distinct but often merged experiences that can both influence our feelings of satiety.

This article is a lengthy and comprehensive guide to the reasons why we might still feel hungry after eating. It combines my experience with eating psychology along with extensive research and clinical studies. The aim is to delve deep into the 13 factors that contribute to the sensation of feeling hungry even after eating.

Before we dive into the different factors for post-meal hunger, it’s helpful to understand how digestion and hunger work. 

The Process of Digestion and Hunger Signals

Digestion is a remarkably intricate process that involves different organs, enzymes, and hormones working in harmony to break down food. A key player in our digestion is the stomach, which vigorously churns food and begins the digestion of proteins through the action of pepsin, a digestive enzyme.

In addition to mechanical breakdown, digestion relies on the release of hormones and neurotransmitters that regulate hunger signals. Ghrelin, often referred to as the “hunger hormone,” plays a pivotal role in signaling to the brain when it’s time to eat. 

Leptin, another crucial hormone, acts as the messenger of satiety. It is primarily secreted by adipose tissue (body fat) and informs the brain about the body’s energy reserves. When body fat increases, leptin levels rise, signaling to the brain that sufficient energy is available and reducing the drive to eat.

However, hunger is not solely dependent on the state of an empty stomach and appropriately-working system of hormones. Hunger is also linked to the body's genuine requirement for essential nutrients.

When nutrient levels decline, intricate pathways are activated to relay this information to the brain, prompting us to eat. This process involves a network of hormones including insulin, which regulates blood sugar levels, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which influences appetite control.

Despite this intricately designed system, there are instances when hunger signals persist even after we have eaten. Numerous factors contribute to feeling hungry after eating, including the type and composition of the meal itself. 

Meal Composition-Related Reasons for Feeling Hungry After Eating

The composition of our meals plays a crucial role in how satisfied we will feel after eating. Opting for balanced meals that incorporate an adequate amount of protein, fiber, and healthy fats can have a significant impact on our sense of fullness.

Here are some nutrition-related reasons for feeling hungry after eating:

1. Your meal lacks protein, fiber, or fats

Studies show1 that consuming a sufficient amount of protein in our meals from high-quality sources such as eggs and lean meats enhances satiety and promotes feelings of fullness. Protein, fiber, and fats require more time to be digested, thereby prolonging the feeling of satisfaction and reducing the likelihood of experiencing hunger soon after eating. 

Though this is well-researched advice, research has also shown2 that it can unintentionally promote obsession with food and disordered eating when someone becomes preoccupied with undereating while simultaneously trying to still feel full (as many people on a diet tend to do).

2. Your meal is high in refined carbohydrates and sugars

If your meals are predominantly composed of simple carbohydrates such as refined sugars and white bread, it could explain why you feel hungry soon after eating. These types of food rapidly elevate our blood sugar levels, triggering insulin release to absorb the sugar. 

However, this process3 can cause a rapid drop in blood sugar, known as a ‘sugar crash.’ This drop can stimulate the release of hunger hormones like ghrelin, resulting in feelings of hunger shortly after a meal.

For example, a breakfast consisting of a sugary cereal with added refined sugars, paired with white toast and a glass of fruit juice would cause a spike in blood sugar followed by the resulting ‘crash.’

As you will frequently hear me say: when our external actions and internal beliefs don't match, self-sabotage happens.

It is important to be mindful of avoiding the development of fear foods around carbs and sugar. Fear food is a term used in eating disorder treatment to describe foods that elicit extreme anxiety or fear. If you feel like the only way to feel calm around carbs and sugar is to keep them out of the house completely, and it brings intense feelings of anxiety to bring them into the house, it could be a sign of disordered eating.

Physiological Reasons for Feeling Hungry After Eating

Meal composition is just one of many reasons for feeling hungry after eating. There are other physiological factors that influence the sensation of hunger even after eating. First we will explore these factors in-depth before digging into some eating psychology.

Here are some physiological reasons for post-meal hunger:

3. You’re dehydrated, which be confused with hunger even after eating

One study4 suggests that while hunger and thirst are distinct sensations, thirst may have a stronger motivational effect than hunger. This can result in our brain misinterpreting the body’s cry for water as a signal to eat, leading to continued feelings of hunger even after eating.

Generic dieting advice for weight loss suggests drinking water when you’re hungry and reassessing your true hunger/fullness later. While there is great merit to this, and drinking water when you’re feeling hungry after eating is a good idea, avoid using water as a meal replacement. This is an example of how diet culture can inadvertently cause people to develop disordered eating habits.

The body requires calories and nutrients from food to function properly. While water can help curb temporary feelings of hunger, it does not provide the essential nutrients and energy needed for bodily functions such as metabolism, muscle repair, and cognitive processes.

The next time you find yourself wondering, Why do I feel hungry after eating?, make sure you’re drinking enough water. If you’re tempted to replace food intake with water intake, make sure you’re still eating enough food to sustain your body.

4. You have a medical condition that affects the body’s hunger cues

There are several medical conditions that can affect the body’s hunger cues and lead to persistent feelings of hunger even after eating. Here are some medical conditions that may affect hunger:

  • Insulin resistance: Insulin resistance occurs when the body’s cells become less responsive to the effects of insulin. This can disrupt the balance of hunger and satiety hormones, leading to increased feelings of hunger.
  • Type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar levels resulting from the body’s inability to properly use insulin. Fluctuations in blood sugar can impact hunger cues and lead to increased or decreased appetite.
  • Hyperthyroidism: Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland produces an excessive amount of thyroid hormones. This can increase metabolism and lead to an increased appetite and feelings of hunger.
  • Hypothyroidism: Hypothyroidism is the opposite of hyperthyroidism, where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. This can cause a decrease in metabolism and result in reduced appetite and feelings of fullness.
  • Prader-Willi syndrome: Prader-Willi syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects appetite regulation. Individuals with this syndrome often experience constant hunger, leading to overeating and obesity.
  • Cushing’s syndrome: Cushing’s syndrome is a condition characterized by high levels of cortisol in the body. Elevated cortisol levels can increase appetite and lead to weight gain.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): PCOS is a hormonal disorder that affects women. Insulin resistance is commonly associated with PCOS, which can disrupt hunger and satiety signals, leading to increased appetite and cravings.
  • Gastroparesis: Gastroparesis is a condition in which the stomach takes longer than normal to empty its contents. This delayed stomach emptying can cause feelings of fullness and early satiety, leading to reduced appetite.

It’s important to note that these medical conditions vary in their impact on hunger cues and may have additional symptoms and effects on overall health. If you suspect any medical condition affecting your hunger cues, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and management.

4. Your stomach’s “stretch receptors” can adapt to large meals

When we eat and food begins to fill our stomachs, it causes stretch receptors5 in the smooth muscle to become activated. These receptors send signals to the brain indicating that it’s time to stop eating. However, an intriguing aspect of these receptors is their ability to adapt to our eating habits over time. 

When we consistently consume larger portions or engage in habitual overeating, these stretch receptors gradually become less sensitive. As a result, the stomach requires a greater volume of food to trigger the sensation of fullness, leading to a persistent feeling of hunger even after eating. 

5. “Leptin resistance” means you require more food to feel full

This phenomenon of feeling hungry after eating extends beyond the realm of physical adaptations within the stomach. Our body’s intricate physiological mechanisms are continuously striving to achieve and maintain a state of equilibrium, known as homeostasis

When we consistently consume excessive amounts of food, these delicate regulatory systems, involving complex hormonal signaling, can become disrupted. Leptin, the crucial hormone involved in hunger and satiety regulation, provides the brain with information about the body’s energy stores. Leptin influences appetite control in this way. 

When fat cells increase in size, they release more leptin,6 signaling to the brain that sufficient energy stores are present. Under normal circumstances, this leads to a reduction in hunger and an increase in satiety.

However, in the face of persistent overeating, a phenomenon called leptin resistance7 can occur. Leptin resistance is characterized by a diminished responsiveness of the brain to the signals of leptin. This disruption compromises the brain’s ability to accurately perceive satiety, potentially resulting in persistent feelings of hunger after eating.

6. You’re feeling hungry after eating because of strenuous exercise

Overexercising is an additional factor that can contribute to feeling hungry after eating. Engaging in intense workouts without providing the body with sufficient calorie intake can result in the depletion of energy stores, leading to an increase in hunger sensations.

When we exercise vigorously, our bodies rely on stored energy in the form of glycogen, which is derived from carbohydrates, to fuel our workout. Intense exercise can quickly deplete these glycogen stores, especially when performed for an extended duration or at a high intensity. As a result, the body seeks to replenish these energy stores to meet its immediate and ongoing energy demands.

Many people, in an effort to lose weight rapidly, participate in rigorous exercise regimens (like “boot camp” style classes) while also cutting calories. If you’re only eating a small meal after intense exercise, it could be the reason why you’re feeling hungry after eating. You simply aren’t eating enough to sustain your workouts.

7. You’re skipping breakfast and eating a small lunch, so you’re extra hungry after dinner

Though the science behind stretch receptor adaptation and leptin resistance is fascinating, it’s important to keep exploring other possible reasons for feeling hungry after eating. Although overeating could be the ‘obvious’ problem, the often-overlooked reality is that individuals who struggle with overeating often do so because of habitual undereating.

From my experience as an eating psychology coach, I am often shocked by how little my clients eat during the day. Perhaps they skip breakfast and then have a chicken salad for lunch.

In this context, it’s no surprise that they are still feeling hungry after eating dinner – the body is trying to play catch-up for all the calories it missed throughout the day.

For this reason, if you still feel hungry even after eating, take a look at how many calories you’re consuming. If you are counting calories and trying to lose weight, you might be pushing your body too far. Furthermore, restricting caloric intake for the sake of weight loss is clinically proven8 to be ineffective.

Numerous studies have shown9 that dieting doesn’t actually work, and that dieting is actually a predictor of weight gain, not weight loss. As you’ll learn later on, eating based on your body’s true hunger and fullness is clinically proven to be more effective10 than dieting while also promoting “metabolic fitness11 (an elevated use of fat at rest and during exercise).

Why Do I Feel Hungry After Eating? The Paradox of Dieting

The concept of dieting often brings to mind notions of self-discipline, willpower, and the pursuit of an ideal body shape. However, an often overlooked aspect is the significant impact12 of restrictive dieting on our feelings of hunger and satiety. An understanding of this counterintuitive phenomenon requires a shift in focus towards the scientific evidence9 behind the adverse effects of dieting.

Many individuals use restrictive diets as a tool to control their weight or achieve a certain body image. This typically involves severe limitation of calorie intake, leading to a disruption of the body’s natural energy regulation cycle.13

In other words, scientific evidence supports the notion that dieting itself may lead to persistent feelings of hunger, even after meals.

A number of studies13 have looked at the impact of restrictive diets on leptin and ghrelin, the hormones that respectively signal satiety and hunger. Some studies have even found that weight loss by dieting led to significant alterations in these hormones, which disrupted the balance of hunger and satiety cues.

Interestingly, these hormonal changes were found to persist even after the period of weight loss, potentially contributing to weight regain14 and making long-term weight maintenance challenging. These findings indicate that restrictive diets could inadvertently fuel a perpetual state of hunger,12 undermining their own objectives.

Dieting, especially when highly restrictive, can also trigger a vicious cycle of overeating. This cycle, often termed the “restrict-binge cycle,” has been documented in many studies,14, 15 where individuals following a restrictive diet are more likely to experience episodes of overeating or binge eating. This pattern can exacerbate feelings of constant hunger and even contribute to weight gain over time.

Because of studies like these,16 the long-term efficacy of restrictive dieting has been called into question. A comprehensive review17 showed that while restrictive diets can lead to short-term weight loss, the majority of individuals regain the lost weight within five years. This pattern, often termed ‘weight cycling’ or ‘yo-yo dieting’, can have negative impacts on mental health, body image, and metabolic health.

In light of these findings, it’s clear that a broader perspective on dieting is needed, one that moves away from rigid rules and restrictions and instead promotes a balanced, intuitive relationship with food. This approach not only aligns more closely with our natural energy regulation but studies have shown10 that it also fosters an improved relationship with food and body image, ultimately contributing to physical and emotional wellbeing.

Psychological and Behavioral Factors Impacting Hunger

Now that we’ve thoroughly covered the biological causes of feeling hungry after eating, along with the ineffectiveness of dieting, let’s discuss some of the nuances of persistent hunger. Many of the psychological reasons for feeling hungry after eating are tied to diet culture and behavioral psychology. After all, hunger is just as much a state of mind18 as it is a state of the physical body. 

Here are some psychological reasons for feeling hungry after eating:

8. Emotional Hunger and Feeling Hungry After Eating

Emotional hunger is a distinct type of hunger that arises from emotional or psychological needs rather than physiological ones. It is often associated with feelings of emptiness, sadness, loneliness, boredom, or stress. When emotional hunger is present, it can lead to the sensation of feeling hungry even after eating.

The connection between emotions and food is a complex one. Many people turn to food as a way to cope with their emotions and seek comfort or distraction. This can lead to mindless or emotional eating, where the focus is on soothing emotional discomfort rather than nourishing the body.

9. You’re Confusing Dissatisfaction with Hunger

Feeling unsatisfied or dissatisfied after eating can sometimes be mistaken for hunger. It’s important to distinguish between physical hunger and the emotional or psychological desire for more food.

Excessive dieting can also lead to making food choices that we don’t genuinely enjoy. Restrictive eating plans often promote the idea of eating specific foods solely for their perceived health benefits or calorie content, rather than considering our personal preferences. 

For instance, some people may opt for steamed broccoli and a chicken breast for lunch when what they really wanted was a warm cup of soup with a sandwich.

When we consume meals that don't align with our taste preferences, it can lead to dissatisfaction after eating which can then be confused with feeling hungry after eating.

10. You’re eating while distracted

Eating while distracted can lead to overeating, but can it lead to feeling hungry after eating? One study19 found that individuals who ate while distracted consumed significantly more calories at that meal compared to those who were focused on their food. Furthermore, those same individuals who were distracted during their meal consumed more food later in the day.

The researchers theorize that overeating was due to a blunted food memory. When people eat while distracted, they might not form a strong memory of the meal, leading them to feel less satisfied after eating and more inclined to eat again sooner.

In this scenario, a person who eats while distracted may still feel hungry after eating, but it is likely emotional hunger, not physical hunger. Physical hunger is satisfied by an appropriately-sized meal while emotional hunger is usually tied to a need for comfort, relaxation, or numbness.

While it is indeed more beneficial to eat without distraction, it can sometimes make matters worse if we set out with good intentions (much like a diet) and then turn on the TV while we eat anyway. Not only does this diminish our self-confidence and reinforce a limiting belief that we have low willpower, but it exhausts our emotional tolerance, which is a key skill for preventing overeating.

Here is my YouTube video that expands on this topic:

11. You eat too quickly and perhaps mindful eating doesn’t help

Eating quickly is another factor that can contribute to feeling hungry after eating. One study20 showed that participants who were instructed to eat slowly reported greater satiety 60 minutes afterward than those who ate quickly.

These findings suggest that mindful eating could help reduce the amount you eat and enhance your satisfaction after meals. This includes taking time to chew your food thoroughly, putting down your utensils between bites, and taking sips of water during your meal.

If you struggle with emotional eating or compulsive eating, however, you may find that mindful eating overlooks the difficult nature of compulsive eating. This is where emotional eating tips are more helpful than mindful eating tips. 

Tools that address emotional eating – such as the Stop, Drop, & Feel method – can offer far more support for someone that struggles with compulsive eating. After all, the nature of compulsion is that it feels out of control, and a tip to ‘just put your utensil down between bites’ is often unhelpful for someone that struggles with uncontrollable eating. I can personally attest to this.

12. You’re stressed and it’s making you feel hungry after eating

Stress plays a significant role in how we experience hunger and fullness. Under stress, the body releases a hormone called cortisol, which can stimulate appetite and promote cravings for sugary, fatty foods.

Prolonged periods of stress may lead to21 higher cortisol levels over time, which can disrupt normal metabolic functions and lead to weight gain. High cortisol levels can interfere with signals of fullness, causing you to feel hungry even after eating a meal.

Reducing stress is often a long process for many of us, because the most stressful factors in our lives are deeply seated: career, relationships, and finances. It takes time to untangle chronic stress, and working closely with a therapist or life coach can greatly help if this is something that you resonate with.

13. You aren’t sleeping enough

Finally, inadequate sleep can significantly disrupt the balance of hunger and satiety hormones, leading to increased feelings of hunger potentially even after eating. A lack of sleep raises levels of ghrelin (the hormone that signals hunger) and lowers levels of leptin (the hormone that signals fullness).

Research22 has shown that individuals who slept less than five hours per night (over a five-year period) showed significantly elevated ghrelin levels and reduced leptin levels compared to those who slept eight hours per night. 

Notably, those who were sleep-deprived also exhibited greater body mass, reinforcing the association between sleep deprivation, altered hunger hormone regulation23, and potential weight gain.

When you're sleep-deprived, your body needs additional energy because it's awake for a longer period of time. This can result in the heightened perception of hunger as your body demands more fuel.

Furthermore, lack of sleep can interfere with your brain’s reward system, particularly impacting areas associated with food cravings. Neuroimaging studies24 have shown that sleep deprivation increases activation in the brain’s reward centers in response to food stimuli, particularly high-calorie, sugary, and fatty foods. 

Bridging the Gap: Practical Strategies for Dealing with Hunger After Eating

As you can see, there are numerous reasons for feeling hungry after eating – from biological causes like insulin resistance and psychological causes like emotional hunger. If you struggle with a medical condition that influences feelings of hunger after eating, it’s important to work with a doctor and/or dietitian.

For those that struggle with the psychological side of persistent hunger, perhaps from excessive dieting, you may feel afraid of giving up dieting even though evidence shows that it’s ineffective14. I completely understand the fear of letting go of food rules because it can feel like giving up control.

Fortunately, by applying evidence-based practices10 that promote intuitive eating, you can gradually shift away from restrictive dieting and heal your relationship with food. This strategy encompasses not only what we eat, but also how, why, and when we eat. 

Here are some practical and sustainable strategies for dealing with hunger after eating:

  • Choose a simple, nutritious meal to satisfy your hunger: When you’re hungry but nothing sounds good (which often happens when you’re still hungry after eating) it helps to focus on simplicity and nutrition. This involves consuming a variety of nutrient-dense foods that provide a balance of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and fiber, and eating until you are satisfied.
  • Cultivate awareness during meals: While the concept of mindful eating may seem challenging, especially for those struggling with emotional or compulsive eating, cultivating awareness around your emotional state during meals can be a useful tool. Recognizing the difference between physical and emotional hunger can help manage overeating tendencies.
  • Stay hydrated: Ensure you’re drinking enough water throughout the day, as thirst can sometimes be mistaken for hunger.
  • Manage stress: Incorporate stress management techniques into your routine, such as yoga, meditation, or deep breathing exercises, as chronic stress can alter hunger and fullness signals.
  • Prioritize sleep: Establish a regular sleep schedule and create a restful environment to ensure adequate, quality sleep, as sleep deprivation can also disrupt the balance of hunger and satiety hormones.
  • Understand the effects of certain foods and beverages: Be aware that stimulants like coffee can suppress appetite temporarily but can cause a surge in hunger levels once their effect wears off.
  • Address emotional eating: Employ strategies like the Stop, Drop, & Feel method to manage emotional eating effectively. It’s important to remember that the nature of compulsive eating often feels out of control, so tactics that address the emotional root of these behaviors can be more helpful than traditional tips.

Remember, these strategies should be tailored to individual needs and circumstances. It’s essential to listen to your body and seek professional help if persistent feelings of hunger continue.

Why Do I Feel Hungry After Eating? Your Reason Is Personal

Finally, it’s important to know that the reason why one person might feel hungry after eating could be completely different from someone else’s reason. The feeling of hunger after eating is a multifaceted issue influenced by biological and psychological factors such as the meal’s composition or the individual’s history of dieting. 

A comprehensive understanding of these elements can help you manage post-meal hunger more effectively. The key lies in embracing a balanced, intuitive approach that tunes into your body’s signals, and seeking professional assistance when necessary. 

Foster a positive relationship with food and remember: it’s perfectly okay to feel hungry and eat until you’re satisfied. Embrace the journey towards a healthier and more intuitive eating experience.

  1. Leidy, Heather J et al. “The effects of consuming frequent, higher protein meals on appetite and satiety during weight loss in overweight/obese men.” Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) vol. 19,4 (2011): 818-24. doi:10.1038/oby.2010.203
  2. Dulloo, Abdul G. “Physiology of weight regain: Lessons from the classic Minnesota Starvation Experiment on human body composition regulation.” Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity vol. 22 Suppl 2 (2021): e13189. doi:10.1111/obr.13189
  3. Holesh JE, Aslam S, Martin A. Physiology, Carbohydrates. [Updated 2023 May 12]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459280/
  4. Mattes, Richard D. “Hunger and thirst: issues in measurement and prediction of eating and drinking.” Physiology & behavior vol. 100,1 (2010): 22-32. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2009.12.026
  5. Van Kleef, E et al. “Successful development of satiety enhancing food products: towards a multidisciplinary agenda of research challenges.” Critical reviews in food science and nutrition vol. 52,7 (2012): 611-28. doi:10.1080/10408398.2010.504901
  6. Perakakis, Nikolaos et al. “Leptin in Leanness and Obesity: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology vol. 77,6 (2021): 745-760. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2020.11.069
  7. Gruzdeva, Olga et al. “Leptin resistance: underlying mechanisms and diagnosis.” Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy vol. 12 191-198. 25 Jan. 2019, doi:10.2147/DMSO.S182406
  8. Masheb, R M, and C M Grilo. “On the relation of attempting to lose weight, restraint, and binge eating in outpatients with binge eating disorder.” Obesity research vol. 8,9 (2000): 638-45. doi:10.1038/oby.2000.82
  9. Lowe, Michael R et al. “Dieting and restrained eating as prospective predictors of weight gain.” Frontiers in psychology vol. 4 577. 2 Sep. 2013, doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00577
  10. Schaefer, Julie T, and Amy B Magnuson. “A review of interventions that promote eating by internal cues.” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics vol. 114,5 (2014): 734-60. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2013.12.024
  11. Saltin, Bengt, and Henriette Pilegaard. “Metabolisk fitness: fysisk aktivitet og sundhed” [Metabolic fitness: physical activity and health]. Ugeskrift for laeger vol. 164,16 (2002): 2156-62.
  12. Cameron, Jameason D et al. “Energy depletion by diet or aerobic exercise alone: impact of energy deficit modality on appetite parameters.” The American journal of clinical nutrition vol. 103,4 (2016): 1008-16. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.115584
  13. Sumithran, Priya et al. “Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss.” The New England journal of medicine vol. 365,17 (2011): 1597-604. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1105816
  14. Maclean, Paul S et al. “Biology’s response to dieting: the impetus for weight regain.” American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology vol. 301,3 (2011): R581-600. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00755.2010
  15. Polivy, J, and C P Herman. “Dieting and binging. A causal analysis.” The American psychologist vol. 40,2 (1985): 193-201. doi:10.1037//0003-066x.40.2.193
  16. Barrows, K, and J T Snook. “Effect of a high-protein, very-low-calorie diet on resting metabolism, thyroid hormones, and energy expenditure of obese middle-aged women.” The American journal of clinical nutrition vol. 45,2 (1987): 391-8. doi:10.1093/ajcn/45.2.391
  17. Mann, Traci et al. “Medicare’s search for effective obesity treatments: diets are not the answer.” The American psychologist vol. 62,3 (2007): 220-33. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.62.3.220
  18. Higgs, Suzanne. “Memory for recent eating and its influence on subsequent food intake.” Appetite vol. 39,2 (2002): 159-66. doi:10.1006/appe.2002.0500
  19. Robinson, Eric et al. “Eating attentively: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of food intake memory and awareness on eating.” The American journal of clinical nutrition vol. 97,4 (2013): 728-42. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.045245
  20. Andrade, Ana M et al. “Eating slowly led to decreases in energy intake within meals in healthy women.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association vol. 108,7 (2008): 1186-91. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.04.026
  21. Dallman, Mary F et al. “Chronic stress and obesity: a new view of “comfort food”.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 100,20 (2003): 11696-701. doi:10.1073/pnas.1934666100
  22. Taheri, Shahrad et al. “Short sleep duration is associated with reduced leptin, elevated ghrelin, and increased body mass index.” PLoS medicine vol. 1,3 (2004): e62. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0010062
  23. Mosavat, Maryam et al. “The Role of Sleep Curtailment on Leptin Levels in Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus.” Obesity facts vol. 14,2 (2021): 214-221. doi:10.1159/000514095
  24. Lars Berglund, MD, PhD and others, Patient Guide to the Assessment and Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia (High Triglycerides), The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 97, Issue 9, 1 September 2012, Pages 31A–32A, https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem.97.9.zeg31a

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